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Detailed Analysis of Solar LED Lighting Principle and Technology


Solar energy is the most direct and most common and cleanest energy on the earth. As a huge amount of renewable energy, solar energy reaches the surface of the earth. The radiant energy is about 250 million barrels of oil per day. It can be said that it is inexhaustible and useless. exhaust. Led's spectrum is almost entirely concentrated in the visible light band, so the luminous efficiency is high. Most people think that energy-saving lamps can save 4/5 energy is a great initiative, but LEDs are more energy-saving than energy-saving lamps, which is a greater solid-state light source. reform.

Solar LED lighting integrates the advantages of solar and LED.

1. Introduction and working principle of solar LED lighting system

The system consists of a solar cell module part (including a bracket), an LED lamp head, a control box (with a controller, a battery) and a lamp pole; the solar panel has a luminous efficiency of 127 Wp/m2, and the efficiency is high, and the system is resistant to wind. The design is very advantageous; the lamp head portion is a planar light source with a 1W white LED and a 1W yellow LED integrated on a printed circuit board and arranged at a certain pitch.

The control box body is made of stainless steel, which is beautiful and durable. The maintenance-free lead-acid battery and charge and discharge controller are placed in the control box. This system uses valve-regulated sealed lead-acid battery. Because it has little maintenance, it is also called “maintenance-free battery, which is conducive to the reduction of system maintenance cost. The charge and discharge controller is designed with both functions in mind (with light control). , time control, overcharge protection, over discharge protection and reverse connection protection, etc.) and cost control to achieve high cost performance.

The working principle of the system is simple. The solar cell made by the solar photovoltaic effect principle receives solar radiant energy and converts it into electric energy output. The battery is stored in the battery through the charge and discharge controller. At night, the illuminance gradually decreases to about 101ux, and the solar cell The open circuit voltage of the board is about 4.5V. After the charge and discharge controller detects this voltage value, the battery is discharged to the lamp head. After the battery is discharged for 8.5 hours, the charge and discharge controller operates and the battery discharge ends. The main function of the charge and discharge controller is to protect the battery.

2, solar LED lighting system design ideas

2.1 Solar cell component selection

Design requirements: Guangzhou area, load input voltage 24V power consumption 34.5W, working hours 8.5H per day, to ensure continuous rainy days 7 days.

(1) The average annual radiation dose in Guangzhou in the past 20 years is 107.7Kcal/cm2, and the peak sunshine hours in Guangzhou are about 3.424H.

(2) Daily load consumption = 12.2AH

(3) The total charging current of the required solar modules = 1.05 × 12.2 × ÷ (3.424 × 0.85) = 5.9A

Here, the shortest design period between two consecutive rainy days is 20 days, 1.05 is the integrated loss factor of the solar cell module system, and 0.85 is the battery charging efficiency.

(4) The minimum total power of solar modules = 17.2 × 5. c = 102W

The standard battery pack with a peak output power of 110Wp and a single 55Wp should be used to ensure the normal operation of the streetlight system in most cases of the year.

2.2 Battery selection

The battery design capacity calculation is simpler than the peak wattage of the solar module.

According to the above calculation, the daily power consumption of the load is 12.2AH. When the battery is full, it can work continuously for 7 rainy days, plus the work of the first night, the battery capacity:

12.2 × (7 + 1) = 97.6 (AH), the choice of two 12V100AH batteries can meet the requirements.

2.3 Solar module assembly design

2.3.1 Dip design

In order to get as much solar radiation as possible in a year, we need to choose the best tilt angle for the solar module.

Regarding the discussion of the optimal tilt angle of the solar cell module, the streetlight used in this area is the Guangzhou area, and the selected solar cell module has a tilt angle of 16 degrees.

2.3.2 Solar LED lighting system wind-resistant design

In solar street lighting systems, one of the structural issues that needs to be taken seriously is the wind-resistant design. The wind-resistant design is mainly divided into two large blocks, one is the wind-resistant design of the battery assembly bracket, and the other is the wind-resistant design of the light pole. The following two pieces are separately analyzed.

(1) Wind-resistant design of solar module bracket

According to the technical parameters of the battery component manufacturer, the solar cell module can withstand a wind pressure of 2700pA. If the wind resistance coefficient is selected as 27M/s (equivalent to a ten-stage typhoon), according to the non-viscous fluid mechanics, the wind pressure of the battery component Only 365pA. Therefore, the component itself can withstand a wind speed of 27 M / s without damage. Therefore, the key consideration in the design is the connection of the battery assembly bracket to the pole.

In the design of the lamp system, the connection between the battery assembly bracket and the lamp post is fixedly connected by bolts.

(2) Windproof design of street light pole

The parameters of the street light are as follows:

Battery board inclination A=16°light pole height=5M

Design selection of the bottom of the lamp post weld width δ = 4MM lamp pole bottom outer diameter = 168MM

The surface of the weld is the lamp-bar damage surface. The distance from the calculation point p of the lamp bar damage surface to the moment W to the action line F of the lamp plate subjected to the lamp bar is pQ=[5000+(168+6)/tAn16°]×Sin16°=1545MM=1.545M. The moment of action of the wind load on the failure surface of the lamp post is M=F×1.545.

According to the maximum allowable wind speed of the 27M/s design, the basic load of the 2×30W dual-lamp solar street light panel is 730N. Consider the safety factor of 1.3, F = 1.3 × 730 = 949N.

Therefore, M = F × 1.545 = 949 × 1.545 = 1466 N.m.

According to mathematical derivation, the resistance moment of the toroidal failure surface is W = π × (3r2δ + 3rδ2 + δ3).

In the above formula, r is the inner diameter of the ring, and δ is the width of the ring.

Destructive surface resistance moment W=π×(3r2δ+3rδ2+δ3)=π×(3×842×4+3×84×42+43)=88768mm3=88.768×10-6m3

Stress caused by moment of action of wind load on failure surface=M/W=1466/(88.768×10-6)=16.5×106pA=16.5MpA“215MpA

Among them, 215MpA is the bending strength of Q235 steel.

Therefore, the width of the weld selected by the design meets the requirements, as long as the welding quality can be guaranteed, the wind resistance of the pole is no problem.

2.4 Solar LED Lighting System Controller

The main function of the solar charge and discharge controller is to protect the battery. The basic functions must have overcharge protection, over discharge protection, light control, time control and anti-reverse connection.

The general parameters of the battery over-charge and over-discharge protection voltage are shown in Table 1. When the battery voltage reaches the set value, the state of the circuit is changed.

In the selection of devices, there are currently single-chip microcomputers, and there are also comparators. There are many schemes, each with its own characteristics and advantages. The corresponding scheme should be selected according to the customer's demand characteristics, which will not be detailed here.

2.5 solar LED lighting system surface treatment

This series of products adopts new electrostatic coating technology, mainly based on Fp professional building materials coatings, which can meet customers' requirements for the color and environment of products, and has high self-cleaning property, strong corrosion resistance and aging resistance. Climate environment. The processing technology is designed to be coated on the basis of hot dip galvanizing, which greatly improves the performance of the product and meets the requirements of the most stringent AAMA2605.2005. Other indicators have met or exceeded the relevant requirements of GB.

3, the conclusion

The overall design basically takes into account all aspects; the peak wattage selection design and battery capacity selection design of photovoltaic modules adopts the most common design method at present, and the design idea is more scientific; the wind resistance design is from the battery assembly bracket and the light pole. The analysis was carried out and the analysis was comprehensive; the surface treatment adopted the most advanced technology; the overall structure of the street lamp was simple and beautiful; after actual operation, the matching between the links was good.

At present, the initial investment in solar LED lighting is still a major problem that plagues us. However, the solar cell's luminous efficiency is gradually increasing, and the price will gradually decrease. Similarly, the LED light efficiency in the market is rapidly increasing, while the price is decreasing. Compared with the renewable, clean and pollution-free solar energy and the environmental protection and energy saving of LED, conventional fossil energy is becoming more and more tense, and it will cause increasingly serious pollution to the environment after use. Therefore, solar LED lighting as an emerging outdoor lighting, showing us will be endless vitality and broad prospects.

Yiwu Fuwei e-commerce firm (IACS Co., Limited) is a very professional Led manufacturer who produces high quality outdoor led light. Our popular products are solar led lights, UFO lights, underwater lights and so on. If you have any question about the led product, please feel free to contact us.